Implementation of Digital Signal Processing (191210950)

This page contains information about the elective course Implementation of Digital Signal Processing as taught at the University of Twente.


General Information

The information below partially refers to the edition for academic year 2022-2023. It gives a representative impression of the contents of this course. It will be graudally updated as the new edition of the course develops. Both theory and exercises may be different in the new edition, though!

Schedule 2023-2024

The schedule is tenative. The contents are subject to change.

A yellow background color for the slide release date either means that the version for the current academic year is available (when the date mentions 2023) or that the slides have not been updated for the current academic year. A pink background means that only last year's slides are available for the moment.

To study
Slides released on
February 9, 2024 Organization - Organization February 9, 2024
February 9, 2024 Introduction, Models of computation [Par09] Introduction February 9, 2024
February 16, 2024 Architecture synthesis and scheduling [Ger99] Architectural Synthesis February 16, 2024
February 16, 2024 Overlapped scheduling [Ger98]
February 23, 2024
No lecture, holiday week
March 1, 2024 Fixed-point design [Bou08] Fixed-Point Design March 1, 2024
March 1, 2024 The Arx RTL Language and Toolset
Version with audio
March 1, 2024
March 8, 2024 Algorithm transformations [Par95] Transformations Addendum March 14, 2022
March 8 + March 15, 2024 The CORDIC Algorithm [And98] and [Loe00] CORDIC March 8, 2024
March 15, 2024 Polyphase implementation of multirate filters [Lan02] and [Vai90]
The part of the theory on downsampling is compulsory, the part on upsampling is optional.
Polyphase implementation March 16, 2018
March 15 + March 22, 2024 Multiplierless filter design [Hew00], [Vor07], [Aks14] and [Kot03] Multiplierless Filter Design March 25, 2023
March 22, 2024 Software synthesis Sections I and II of [Bha00] Software Synthesis March 25, 2022
March 29, 2024 No lecture (Good Friday)
April 5, 2024 Code generation Sections III and IV of [Bha00] + [Goo05] + [Kes19] Code Generation March 26, 2021
April 5, 2024 Modern DSP Architectures
DSP Architectures April 3, 2022
April 12, 2024 No lecture

Compulsory Material

Below, you find the written material for this course. At the moment, the list also contains material that will be no longer used. As the course progresses, the list will be cleaned up and extended.

Most of the material can only be accessed through the collective subscriptions of LISA, the library services of the University of Twente. Such access is automatic when on campus. For off-campus access, please consult the information page of LISA on this topic. I can recommend the lean-library plug-in.

Andraka, R., A Survey of CORDIC Algorithms for FPGA-Based Computers, 6th International Symposium on Field Programmable Gate Arrays, Monterey, CA., pp 191-200, (1998). Online copy (only in UT domain).

Aksoy, L., P. Flores and J. Monteiro, A Tutorial on Multiplierless Design of FIR Filters: Algorithms and Architectures, Circuits, Systems and Signal Processing, Vol. 33(6), pp 1689-1719, (2014). Online copy (only in UT domain).

Anjum, O, T. Ahonen, F. Garzia, J. Nurmi, C. Brunelli and H. Berg, State-of-the-Art Baseband DSP Platforms for Software-Defined Radio: A Survey, EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communication and Networking, Vol. 2011(5). Online copy (only in UT domain).

Bhattacharyya, S.S., R. Leupers and P. Marwedel, Software Synthesis and Code Generation for Signal Processing Systems, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems---II, Analog and Digital Signal Processing, Vol. 47(9), (September 2000). Online copy (only in UT domain).

Caption of Figure 6: last subscript of y should be n-1 instead of n.

Right column of Page 856: Read Figure 9(b) where 9(a) is mentioned and vice versa.

Contents of Figure 17: In order to be consistent with next figures, rewrite "x = a - b" and "y = a - b + c * d".

Bouganis, C.S. and G.A. Constantinides, Synthesis of DSP Algorithms from Infinite Precision Specifications, In: P. Coussy and A. Morawiec (Eds.), High-Level Synthesis, From Algorithm to Digital Circuit, Springer, pp 197-214, (2008). Online copy (only in UT domain).

Those interested in a detailed analysis of the probability density function of the truncation error after multiplication can consult the followin non-compulsory paper:

Ahmadi, A. and M. Zwolinski, Fixed-Point Multiplication: A Probabilistic Bit-Pattern View, Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 51(4), pp 790-796, (April 2011). Online copy (only in UT domain).

You can skip Seciton 11.3 (2D FIR filters).

Page 203, halfway bottom paragraph: twice add a minus sign to 2's exponent (so 2**n should become 2**-n).

Page 204, Equation 11.10: the "close" parenthesis with exponent 2 should move to the end of the equation.

Chiueh, T.D., P.Y. Tsai, I.W. Lai, Baseband Receiver Design for Wireless MIMO-OFDM Communications, Second Edition, IEEE, Wiley and Sons Singapore, (2012). Online copy of Chapter 9 (only in UT domain).

Gerez, S.H., S.M. Heemstra de Groot, E.R. Bonsma and M.J.M. Heijligers, Overlapped Scheduling Techniques for High-Level Synthesis and Multiprocessor Realizations of DSP Algorithms, In: J.C. Lopez, R. Hermida and W. Geisselhardt (Eds.), Advanced Techniques for Embedded System Design and Test, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, pp 125-150, (1998).

You can skip Section 6.5.3 on the efficient computation of the iteration-period bound.

Erratum: On Page 138, in the one but last sentence of the one but last paragraph, the range [-11, -4] should be corrected to [-13, -4].

Gerez, S.H., High-Level Synthesis (Chapter 12) in Algorithms for VLSI Design Automation, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, (1999).

You can skip Section 12.4.3 on force-directed scheduling.

Goossens, G., D. Lanneer and P. Dytrych, Design of Low Power Processor Cores using a Retargetable Tool Flow, In: C. Piguet (Ed.), Low-Power Electronics Design, CRC Press, Boca Raton, (2005). View e-book chapter online (or download pages, access limited to a single reader at a time).

He, S. and M. Torkelson, Designing Pipeline FFT Processor for OFDM (De)modulation, URSI International Symposium on Signals, Systems and Electronics, ISSSE'98, pp. 257-262, (1998). Online copy (only in UT domain).

Hewlitt, R.M. and E.S. Swartzlander, Canonical Signed Digit Representation for FIR Digital Filters, IEEE Workshop on Signal Processing Systems, SiPS 2000, Lafayette, LA, pp 416-426, (2000). Online copy (only in UT domain).

Hofstra, K.L. and S.H. Gerez, Arx: A Toolset for the Efficient Simulation and Direct Synthesis of High-Performance Signal Processing Algorithms, International Conference on High Performance Embedded Architectures and Compilers, Ghent, Belgium, (January 2007). Online copy (only in UT domain).

Kessler, C.W., "Compiling for VLIW DSPs", In: S.S. Bhattacharyya et al. (Eds.), Handbook of Signal Processing Systems, Springer Nature, pp. 979-1020, (2019). Online copy (only in UT domain).

Sections 1 and 2 are compulsory, the remaining sections are optional.

Kotteri, K.A., A.E. Bell and J.E. Carletta, Quantized FIR Filter Design Using Compensating Zeros, IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, pp 60-67, (November 2003). Online copy (only in UT domain).

Optional text!

Langlois, J.M.P., D. Al-Khalili and R.J. Inkol, Polyphase Filter Approach for High Performance, FPGA-Based Quadrature Demodulation, Journal of VLSI Signal Processing, Vol. 32, pp 237-254, (2002). Online copy (only in UT domain).

Correction for Equation 6: there should not be a factor 2 in front of h_LP(m).

Loehning, M., T. Hentschel and G. Fettweis, Digital Down Conversion in Software Radio Terminals, 10th European Signal Processing Conference, EUSIPCO 2000, pp 1517-1520, (2000). Online copy.

Parhi, K.K., High-Level Algorithm and Architecture Transformations for DSP Synthesis, Journal of VLSI Signal Processing, Vol. 9, pp 121-143, (1995). Online copy (only in UT domain).

You can skip Sections 6 (folding) and 8 (relaxed look-ahead).

Comments on Figure 6. The issue is that unfolding can improve the processor utilization. The explanation in the paper is not correct.

The schedule shown in Figure 6(b) is rate optimal i.e. it repeats at the iteration-period bound (T0min) value of 3. In this period, the total of the computations to be performed is 9 (4 operations of 2 and 1 of 1) time units. The lower bound on the number of processors is 3 (=9/3). However, this bound cannot be met. The reason is that the schedule needs to repeat every 3 time units. This means that a separate processor is necessary for each of the operations A to D that take two time units (a processor that would execute two of them would require an iteration period of 4). One has an average processor utilization of 75% (9/12).

Figure 6(c) shows a schedule of the graph after 2-unfolding. The unfolded graph contains 2 iterations of the original graph. This schedule is also rate optimal which means that the 2 iterations are executed in 6 time units. The optimal number of processor in this situation would be again 3 (=18/6). There now exists a schedule that reaches 100% processor utilization (the available 6 time units per processor can now be filled optimally with operations of 2 time units).

In Figure 6(b), the operations A0, B0, C0, D0 and E0 belong to one iteration. The schedule has an iteration period of 3 (A1 starts 3 time units after A0, etc.) a latency of 7 (output on E0) and a span of 8 (end of D0).

In Figure 6(c), the operations A0/A1, B0/B1, C0/C1, D0/D1 and E0/E1 belong to one iteration. The schedule has an iteration period of 6 (A2 starts 6 time units after A0, etc.) and a latency and span of 12 (output on E1).

Comments on Figure 9(a). According to me, two inequalities are incorrect: r(A2) - r(M1) <= 2 and r(M4) - r(A3) <= -1.

Park, H.W., H. Oh and S. Ha, Multiprocessor SoC Design Methods and Tools, IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, pp. 72-79, (November 2009). Online copy (only in UT domain).

Vaidyanathan, P.P., Multirate Digital Filters, Filter Banks, Polyphase Networks, and Applications: A Tutorial, Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 78(1), pp 56-93, (January 1990). Online copy (only in UT domain).

Optional text.

Voronenko, Y. and M. Pueschel, Multiplierless Multiple Constant Multiplication, ACM Transactions on Algorithms, Vol. 3(2), (May 2007). Online copy (only in UT domain).

Only study Section 1 (until page 6); the rest is optional.

Examination and Projects

The examination of this course will consist of a number of homework exercises and practical projects, all to be finished within the third quarter. Information on the projects for the 2023-2024 edition of the course will gradually become available in due time. Students needing the pre-knowledge reparation (see below), can start working on the reparation projects directly.

For the practical parts of the exercises, you will need to connect to server following the infrastructure-guidelines page.

The projects for the 2023-2024 edition of this course are as given in the table below:

Max. points
Nominal Load
Start after lecture of
MAP Mapping Data-Flow Graphs to RTL Designs 30
30 hours March 1, 2024
TRA Data-Flow-Graph Transformations 10
10 hours March 8, 2024
GFS The GFSK Receiver 60
60 hours March 15, 2024

When ready with all projects, you should send me (Sabih Gerez) your reports for the three projects by e-mail.

The mark will be based on the reports and the defense of your work in an oral examination session. The mark is basically the sum of points obtained for the projects divided by 10:

FINAL = (MAP + TRA + GFS)/10

The performance at the oral exam can lead to a correction of at most one point up or down. In principle, the members of a project team will receive the same mark unless there are strong indications of differences in performance.

The course needs to be terminated within the quarter in which it is taught. The delivery deadlines are as follows:

The deadlines hold for sending me, Sabih Gerez, the reports of the 3 projects in PDF format by e-mail. Send me one e-mail per team including all 3 project reports. It does not make sense to submit reports one at a time, at the moment that you finish a project. I will only correct the reports after having received a complete submission for a team. Soon after receiving the reports, I will propose you a time for the oral session.

Pre-knowledge Reparation

Students who did not follow any of the courses System-on-Chip Design or System-on-Chip Design for ES need to become familiar with the VHDL simulation and synthesis flow. More information will follow. This amounts to work on Projects VHD and SYN as described on the public web page of the mentioned courses. The goal is to become familiar with:

The students concerned do not need to carry out all exercises. It is left up to them to spend as much time as needed to achieve the goals mentioned above. Depending on the students' background 10 to 20 hours are supposed to be sufficient. No reports need to be delivered. This activity does not contribute to the grading of this course.

Before doing any exercise, you need to set up a connection from your PC to server following the infrastructure-guidelines page.


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Last update on: April 05 2024 22:45:51 by Sabih Gerez.